Initial program load (IPL)

The initial program load (IPL) is the process of loading an operating system or application program into a computer’s memory. The IPL is typically initiated by hardware, such as a central processing unit (CPU), a bootstrap loader, or a firmware device. The IPL can also be initiated by software, such as an operating system loader … Read more

TRON (The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus)

The Real-Time Operating System Nucleus (TRON) is a real-time operating system (RTOS) developed in the 1980s by Professor Ken Sakamura of the University of Tokyo. It was designed to be small, efficient, and suitable for embedded systems. The TRON Project was launched in 1984 with the aim of creating an open, standardized, and portable RTOS … Read more


Utility programs are small, specialized programs that perform specific tasks. Many utility programs are provided as part of the operating system, while others are available for purchase. Common examples of utility programs include virus scanners, disk defragmenters, and data backup programs. What is a utility in a house? A utility in a house is a … Read more


An interrupt is a signal that indicates to the processor that an event has occurred that needs immediate attention. The processor responds by suspending its current activity and executing a special piece of code known as an interrupt handler to deal with the event. Interrupts are used to handle both hardware and software events. Hardware … Read more

Visual computing

Visual computing, also known as computer graphics, involves the generation and manipulation of images using computers. It is used in a variety of fields, including video games, movies, and scientific visualization. The field of visual computing has its roots in the early days of computing, when programmers used simple graphical primitives to create images on … Read more


A window is a graphical interface element that allows a user to view and interact with a particular application or document. In a windowing system, each application or document is typically displayed in its own window, and the user can switch between them by clicking on the different windows. Windows are usually made up of … Read more

C shell

The C shell is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s. It has been widely distributed, especially as the default login shell for BSD operating systems. The C shell’s syntax resembles that of the C programming language, hence its … Read more


A metafile is a computer file that stores a representation of another file or data. A metafile is typically used to store a graphic or picture. What is a metafile image? A metafile image is a computer file format used to store digital images. Metafile images are typically stored in a compressed format, which reduces … Read more


Netfilter is a framework provided by the Linux kernel that allows various networking-related tasks to be performed within the kernel. These tasks include packet filtering, network address translation, and port forwarding. Netfilter is implemented as a set of kernel hooks that can be invoked by kernel code or by user-space applications. What is difference between … Read more


Thrashing is a condition where the CPU is spending most of its time doing nothing useful because it is constantly swapping data between memory and the disk. Thrashing occurs when the system is trying to run too many programs at the same time or when a program is trying to do too much. What is … Read more