Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With CFD, engineers can analyze fluid flows … Read more


A Boolean is a logical data type that can have one of two values, either “true” or “false”. Boolean values are often used in programming to represent the two possible outcomes of a test or evaluation. For example, a Boolean variable might be used to keep track of whether a user is logged in or … Read more

Nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS)

A NURBS curve is a mathematical model used in computer graphics for generating and representing curves. NURBS curves are defined by a set of control points and a weighting function. The control points define the shape of the curve and the weighting function defines how the curve interpolates between the control points. NURBS curves can … Read more

10,000-year clock

The 10,000-year clock is a mechanical clock that is designed to last for 10,000 years. The clock is being built by the Long Now Foundation, a nonprofit organization that is dedicated to “long-term thinking.” The clock is intended to encourage people to think about the future and to help them understand the passage of time. … Read more

Zero (0)

The number zero is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. The number 0 fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems. Names … Read more

Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a free online education platform and nonprofit organization that offers free educational resources to students of all ages. The organization produces short lessons in the form of videos, articles, and interactive exercises, and covers a wide range of topics including math, science, history, and more. The Khan Academy was founded in 2008 … Read more

Incompleteness Theorem

The Incompleteness Theorem is a theorem in mathematical logic that states that any formal system that is powerful enough to describe the natural numbers is necessarily incomplete: there are statements in the formal system that can be neither proved nor disproved within the system. The theorem was first proved by Kurt Gödel in 1931, using … Read more

Logarithm (logarithmic)

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation. That means the logarithm of a given number x is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base b, must be raised, to produce that number x. In the simplest case, the logarithm counts repeated multiplication of the same factor; e.g., since 1000 = … Read more

Negative correlation

A negative correlation is a relationship between two variables in which one variable decreases as the other variable increases, and vice versa. In other words, when one variable decreases, the other variable decreases, and when one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, there is a negative correlation between the number of hours you … Read more

Mersenne prime (or Marsenne prime)

A Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. That is, it is a prime number of the form 2^n-1 for some integer n. The first few Mersenne primes are 3, 7, 31, 127 (corresponding to n = 2, 3, 5, 7). There are only a finite number … Read more