A Grawlix is a string of symbols used to represent a swear word, or to represent a word that has been censored. The most common Grawlixes are: #@!%* or @#$%&. Why is it called a grawlix? The word “grawlix” is a combination of the words “grawl” and “lix”. “Grawl” is a word used to describe … Read more

Acceptable spam report rate

The acceptable spam report rate is the percentage of recipients who report an email as spam. This metric is important because it helps to determine whether an email is likely to be considered spam by recipients. A high spam report rate indicates that an email is more likely to be considered spam, and a low … Read more


Messaging is the process of exchanging messages between two or more parties. It can be done via email, instant messaging, text messaging, or any other similar means. In business, messaging is often used as a way to communicate with customers or clients. It can also be used as a way to communicate internally within an … Read more

Unified messaging server (UM server)

A unified messaging server (UM server) is a server that consolidates various types of communication, such as email, voicemail, fax, and text messaging, into a single inbox. This allows users to manage all of their communication from a single location. There are a number of benefits to using a UM server. First, it can help … Read more

Database availability group (DAG)

A Database Availability Group (DAG) is a group of Mailbox servers that provides automatic database-level recovery from a failed Mailbox server in a Exchange Server environment. A DAG contains a copy of each mailbox database hosted on Mailbox servers that are members of the DAG. When a Mailbox server experiences a database failure, the Mailbox … Read more

MAPI (Messaging Application Program Interface)

MAPI (Messaging Application Program Interface) is a set of COM (Component Object Model) interfaces that Outlook uses to interact with email servers. MAPI is the underlying protocol that Microsoft Outlook uses to connect to Microsoft Exchange Server. MAPI was originally designed to provide a common set of APIs for email applications. However, over time it … Read more

Certified e-mail (authenticated e-mail or stamped e-mail)

Certified e-mail (authenticated e-mail or stamped e-mail) is an email service that uses cryptographic signatures and time stamps to verify the sender’s identity and the integrity of the message. Certified e-mail services are designed to provide a higher level of security than traditional email services. Certified e-mail services typically use digital signatures to verify the … Read more

TAPI (Telephony Application Program Interface)

The Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) is a Microsoft Windows API that provides computer telephony integration and enables PCs to control telephony devices and exchange information with phone systems. It was first introduced in 1992. TAPI can be used to develop telephony applications such as call control, caller ID, and voicemail. It also allows third-party … Read more

File allocation table (FAT)

A file allocation table (FAT) is a table that an operating system uses to track which blocks of disk space are allocated to each file. Each entry in the table contains the starting block number and the length of the file. The FAT is used to locate the files on the disk so that they … Read more

PST file

A PST file is a Microsoft Outlook data file that stores email messages, contacts, tasks, and other items. PST files are used to back up email data for Microsoft Outlook. They can also be used to migrate email data from one computer to another or to transfer email data from an email account to a … Read more