A valve is a device that controls the flow of a fluid (liquid, gas, or fluidized solid) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing one or more passageways. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The … Read more


Solid-state refers to the state of matter of a substance that is rigid and maintain its shape. It is the opposite of liquid and gas. Most solids are in this state at room temperature. The term is most often used in the context of semiconductor devices, such as transistors and integrated circuits, which are made … Read more

Isotropic radiator

An isotropic radiator is an idealized theoretical lossless antenna that radiates equal intensity in all directions. It is also known as an omnidirectional antenna. The term “isotropic radiator” is often used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to describe an antenna or source that radiates equally in all directions. How is isotropic radiator different from real antenna? … Read more

Smart matter

Smart matter is a term for materials and devices that can respond to their environment and perform complex functions. Smart matter can be made from a variety of materials, including semiconductors, metals, and plastics. It can be used to create a variety of devices, including sensors, actuators, and displays. Smart matter has the potential to … Read more

Micromobility technology

Micromobility technology refers to the use of small, electric vehicles for short-distance travel. This includes scooters, bicycles, and skateboards that are powered by electricity. This type of transportation is becoming increasingly popular in urban areas as a way to avoid traffic congestion and to reduce pollution. What is micromobility explain with examples? Micromobility is the … Read more