Phase modulation (PM)

Phase modulation (PM) is a type of modulation where the phase of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the modulating signal. PM is typically used in radio communications systems, where it is used to encode information onto a carrier wave. The phase of the carrier signal is varied in order to encode the … Read more

Functional requirements

Functional requirements are a set of characteristics that a system or component must possess in order to be able to perform its required functions. In the context of electronics, these requirements may include such things as the voltage and current that a power supply must be able to provide, the maximum frequency that a signal … Read more


An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a device. In a diode, for example, the anode is the electrode that receives the majority of the current. In a cathode ray tube (CRT), the anode is the positively charged electrode that accelerates the electrons being emitted from the cathode. What is anode … Read more

Seven-segment display

A seven-segment display is a type of electronic display device that uses seven segments to form a numerical digit or other symbol. The seven segments are arranged in a rectangular pattern that can be used to display numbers, letters, or other symbols. Seven-segment displays are often used in electronic devices such as digital clocks, calculators, … Read more

Stereoscopy (stereoscopic imaging)

Stereoscopy (stereoscopic imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. The word stereoscopy derives from the Greek στερεός (stereos) meaning “firm, solid”, and σκοπέω (skopeō) meaning “to look, to see”. Any stereoscopic image is composed of two separate images called “left” … Read more

Abvolt (abV)

The abvolt (abV) is a unit of measurement for electric potential difference. It is defined as being equal to one ten-billionth (10^-9) of a volt. The term was first used in 1930 by the International Electrotechnical Commission. What is the relation between Volt and statvolt? There is no definitive answer to this question, as it … Read more

Superconducting quantum interference device

A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a type of superconducting electronic device that can be used to measure very weak magnetic fields. SQUIDs are also used to make extremely sensitive magnetometers. SQUIDs consist of a loop of superconducting material that is interrupted by two Josephson junctions. A Josephson junction is a point contact between … Read more


The term saturation refers to the state of a two-terminal device when the voltage across the device is equal to the voltage that would be required to produce the maximum possible current through the device. In other words, saturation occurs when the device is unable to carry any more current. Saturation is often used in … Read more

Digital signal processing (DSP)

Digital signal processing (DSP) is a type of signal processing that deals with digital signals. It is used to process signals such as audio, video, and voice. DSP is used to improve the quality of the signal, to remove noise, and to compress the signal. What is DSP used for? DSP, or digital signal processing, … Read more


An amplifier is a device that takes an input signal and amplifies it to produce an output signal. The amount of amplification is determined by the amplifier’s gain. What are the 3 types of amplifiers? The three types of amplifiers are voltage amplifiers, current amplifiers, and power amplifiers. Voltage amplifiers increase the voltage of a … Read more