Unknown unknown

The term “Unknown unknown” refers to risks that are not known to us, and which we may not even be aware of. These are the risks that can catch us by surprise and which can have a major impact on our organisation. Unknown unknowns can be particularly dangerous because they can lead to serious problems … Read more

BS 10012:2009 (British Standard 10012:2009)

BS 10012:2009 (British Standard 10012:2009) is a standard for implementing a personal data management system (PDMS). The standard provides a framework for organizations to manage personal data in a way that is consistent with data protection legislation. The standard is based on the ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard for information security management systems. BS 10012:2009 was developed … Read more

Business sustainability

The term “business sustainability” refers to the ability of a business to continue operating indefinitely without causing negative environmental or social impacts. To be sustainable, a business must be able to meet its financial obligations, have a positive impact on the environment, and create social and economic value for its employees, customers, and other stakeholders. … Read more

Accounting error

An accounting error is a mistake in the recording, classification, or summarization of financial transactions. Such errors can occur in either the personal finance or corporate finance realm. In personal finance, accounting errors are often made by individuals when they are preparing their own tax returns. Common examples include incorrectly calculating the amount of taxes … Read more

Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA)

The Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) is a law that was enacted in 1991 in order to protect consumers from unwanted telemarketing calls. The TCPA prohibits telemarketers from using automated dialing systems to make calls to consumers without their prior consent. The TCPA also requires telemarketers to provide consumers with an opt-out mechanism so that … Read more

United States Department of Transportation

The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal government department responsible for overseeing many different types of transportation in the United States. This includes everything from the nation’s highways and bridges to its public transit systems and railway networks. The DOT is also responsible for ensuring that transportation in the United States is … Read more


“SLAPP” is an acronym for “Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation”. It is a type of lawsuit that is filed in order to silence, intimidate or otherwise punish someone for speaking out against the plaintiff. These lawsuits are often frivolous and without merit, but they can be very costly and time-consuming to defend against. SLAPPs are … Read more

Due process

Due process is a legal term that refers to the fair and just treatment of individuals when they are subject to the actions of the government. Due process ensures that individuals are not deprived of their life, liberty, or property without due notice and a chance to be heard. It also ensures that the government … Read more

Critical infrastructure

Critical infrastructure refers to the physical and cyber systems and assets that are essential to the functioning of a society or economy. These systems and assets include, but are not limited to, transportation, energy, water, communications, and financial systems. Critical infrastructure is often considered to be the backbone of a society or economy, and its … Read more


A standard is a set of criteria that are used as a benchmark against which to measure something. In the context of compliance, risk and governance, a standard is a set of best practices that an organization should adhere to in order to minimize risk and ensure compliance with relevant regulations. What does a standard … Read more