FiOS (Fiber Optic Service)

FiOS is a data transmission technology that uses optical fiber to deliver high-speed data to users. FiOS is capable of delivering speeds of up to 10 Gbps (gigabits per second), which is much faster than the current state of the art for data transmission over copper cables. FiOS is also much less expensive to deploy … Read more

Round robin

Round robin is a method of data transmission in which each unit of data is sent to the next receiver in line, and then the last receiver sends the data back to the first receiver. This process is repeated until all units of data have been sent. What is round-robin with example? Round-robin is a … Read more


The point in the orbit of a satellite at which it is nearest to the earth is called the perigee. Is perigee always full moon? No, perigee is not always full moon. The moon’s orbit around Earth is elliptical, so sometimes the moon is closer to Earth (at perigee) and sometimes it is farther away … Read more


The term “Apogee” is used to describe the highest point in the orbit of a satellite around a planet. This point is also known as the “Apoapsis”. The opposite of the Apogee is the “Perigee” which is the point at which the satellite is closest to the planet. Does apogee still exist? Apogee still exists … Read more

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)

A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is a type of semiconductor laser diode with a vertically oriented cavity and an active region that emits light perpendicular to the top surface of the device. VCSELs are used in a variety of applications including data communications, optical networking, laser printing, and barcode scanning. What is VCSEL … Read more

Nyquist Theorem

The Nyquist theorem is a fundamental result in the field of information theory, which states that a signal can be perfectly reconstructed from a sampled version of that signal if the sampling rate is greater than twice the bandwidth of the signal. The theorem is named after Harry Nyquist, who proved the theorem in 1928. … Read more


Telemetry is the process of measuring and transmitting data from a remote location. It is often used in the aerospace and automotive industries to monitor the performance of aircraft and vehicles. Telemetry data can be used to track the position, speed, and altitude of an aircraft or vehicle, as well as the temperature, pressure, and … Read more

Composite video (baseband video or RCA video)

Composite video is an analog video signal that combines picture and sound information into a single signal. The picture information is carried on a carrier wave known as the video carrier, and the sound information is carried on a separate carrier wave known as the audio carrier. The two carrier waves are combined into a … Read more

Inverse multiplexing

Inverse multiplexing is a data transmission technique in which multiple lower-speed physical channels are combined into a single higher-speed logical channel. The inverse multiplexer takes data from each of the lower-speed channels and interleaves it, creating a single stream of data that is sent over the higher-speed channel. At the receiving end, the inverse multiplexer … Read more


In information theory, entropy is the measure of the amount of information that is contained in a message. The higher the entropy, the more information the message contains. Entropy is measured in bits, and the higher the entropy, the more bits are required to transmit the message. In data transmission, entropy is used to measure … Read more