Gallium nitride (GaN)

GaN is a compound semiconductor made from gallium and nitrogen. It is used in a variety of electronic devices, including light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, and power amplifiers. GaN has a wide range of applications due to its unique electronic and optical properties. GaN is a direct bandgap semiconductor, meaning it can emit light of a … Read more


A diode is a two-terminal electronic component with an asymmetric transfer characteristic, with low resistance to current flow in one direction, and high resistance in the reverse direction. A diode vacuum tube or thermionic diode is a vacuum tube with two electrodes, a heated cathode and a plate, in which electrons can flow in only … Read more

White noise

White noise is a signal that contains all frequencies within a certain range. White noise is often used in electronic applications to mask other signals. What is white noise noise? White noise is a signal that contains all frequencies within a certain range. The term is often used in electronics to refer to a signal … Read more

Standing-wave ratio (SWR, VWSR, IWSR)

The standing-wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching of a load to a transmission line or waveguide. It is a ratio of the maximum amplitude of the standing wave on the line to the minimum amplitude of the standing wave on the line. The SWR is usually expressed as a ratio of two … Read more


A positron is an electrically charged subatomic particle with a charge equal to that of a negative electron. The name positron was coined by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1933. He predicted the existence of the positron based on his theory of the electron, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933. Positrons … Read more


A waveform is a representation of a signal as it varies over time. Waveforms are commonly used to represent electrical signals, sound waves, and light waves. The amplitude (height) of the waveform represents the strength of the signal, while the wavelength (length) represents the time period of the signal. What are 3 types of waveform? … Read more

Paper battery

A paper battery is a type of battery that is made out of paper. The paper is coated with a thin layer of conducting material, such as carbon, and then rolled up into a cylindrical shape. The resulting battery is thin, lightweight, and flexible, making it ideal for use in a variety of applications. Paper … Read more


A toroid is a ring-shaped transformer or inductor in which the windings are wound around a central ring. The toroidal shape enables the windings to be close to each other, which reduces the transformer’s magnetic field and makes it more efficient. What does toroidal shape mean? A toroidal shape is one that is roughly doughnut-shaped, … Read more

Characteristic impedance of free space

The characteristic impedance of free space is the impedance of a hypothetical lossless medium in which electromagnetic waves can propagate freely. It is also known as the wave impedance of free space. The value of the characteristic impedance of free space is often represented by the symbol Z0. The characteristic impedance of free space is … Read more

IR LED (infrared light-emitting diode)

An IR LED is a special type of LED that emits infrared light. Infrared light is invisible to the human eye, but it can be detected by special sensors. IR LEDs are used in a variety of applications, including remote control devices, night vision cameras, and fiber optic communications. What is the difference between LED … Read more